How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book]


  • Paperback
  • 364
  • How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics
  • N. Katherine Hayles
  • English
  • 10 February 2020
  • 9780226321462

N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download

Free read How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Read ´ How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics ☆ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF That is how it came to be conceptualized as an entity separate from the material forms that carry it; the cultural and technological construction of the cyborg; and the dismantling of the liberal humanist subject in cybernetic discourse along with the emergence of the posthumanRanging widely across the history of technology cultural studies and literary criticism Hayles shows what had to be erased forgotten and elided to conceive of information as a disembodied entity Thus she moves from the post World War II Macy Conferences on cybernetics. I actually finished this book a few months ago but I never got around to updating it here mostly because I dreaded having to write a review for it In short this is so because although I mostly loved Hayles book and her reflections on embodiment and how it was erased by cybernetics and later tech influenced philosophical thought on the mind as well such as the whole of functionalism and all the Kurzweils and Wolframs and out there I really am not much interested to this day at least which is as much as I can always say about my intellectual hunger in literary analysis no matter how philosophical it might be I would mostly prefer to read theory I guessIn any case I read Hayles mostly because of the history of cybernetics she presents One of my interests in the analytic tradition in the philosophy of mind is understanding how anyone could fathom such an absurd idea as mind uploading or conscious machines This is partly because of my path in these studies I guess I used to entertain the idea that machines might one day display conscious like behaviour Much like Alan Turing when I learned programming I too saw no good reason not to ascribe them consciousness if they walk and talk like a duck It was only when I was introduced philosophy of mind via Varela Rosch and Thompson s critiue of internalist disembodied computational based cognition in The Embodied Mind Cognitive Science and Human Experience that I started to reject the idea of conscious machines Human consciousness is itself far ineffable and complex than our silly computational models can ever grasp Funnily enough Varela did not deny the possibility of conscious machines as I do he was fond of the potential of Wolfram s automata for enacting consciousnessHayles pinpoints some very specific and interesting moments in the history of scientific development in the mind brain sciences in the 20th century in order to exemplify many of the assumptions which have formed the field since then such as a type of scientific realism regarding biological neural modeling using computational neural networks I turn to this example probably my favourite passage in the book in the rest of the review as I think it represents the tone of the book and Hayles main argumentWarren McCulloch a neurophysiologist and cybernetician in the 1940s developed one of the first theoretical accounts or model of a neuron cell as a basic logical unit McCulloch observed that neurons networked organisation made them capable of signifying logical propositions Hayles p 58 For instance if neuron A is connected to neurons B and C and the excitation threshold of A is eual to that of C and B combined then this setup can be said to instantiate the logical proposition if A then B and C or B C A A natural science philosophical parenthesis one should point out how much work has been done here it is often only after a model has been proposed that interesting science can be done As Steve Heims apud Hayles has said it is not easy to extrapolate from amorphous pink tissue on the laboratory table to the clean abstractions of the model Logician Walter Pitts came later and developed the network implications of McCulloch s unit neuron for instance demonstrating that a neural network of sufficient complexity I assume was able to calculate any number that is any proposition that can be calculated by a Turing machine ie it was Turing complete Such approach has proved a success by most measures Today a lot of neuroscience works exclusively with neural modelling using computational models Neural network modelling has also led to huge developments in computer science and artificial intelligence in the last decade as we all knowFor McCulloch and many of our contemporaries the success of his approach was vindicated by history But what are the nature of models How can a model of the brain prove anything regarding actual human minds What does behaviour of artificial neurons mere mathematical reductions prove regarding actual nerve cells or worse regarding the human constituted by such cells In 1947 a fellow cybernetician psychologist H L Teuber asked this very uestion elegantly Your robot may become capable of doing innumerable tricks the nervous system is able to do it is still unlikely that the nervous system uses the same methods as the robot in arriving at what might look like identical results Your models remain models unless some platonic demon mediate between the investigators of organic structure and the diagram making mathematiciansMcCulloch s answer for me is exemplary of his fellow machine functionalists to this dayI look to mathematics including symbolic logic for a statement of a theory in terms so general that the creations of God and man must exemplify the processes prescribed by that theory Just because the theory is so general as to fit robot and man it lacks the specificity reuired to indicate mechanism in man to be the same as mechanism in robotSecond natural science philosophical parenthesis you may treat a theory such as the neural scientific view of the nerve cell derived from McCulloch differently depending on whether you believe it describes reality or less accurately or whether you take it as only a useful fiction one that leads to productive science but which purports to bear no resemblance to reality whatsoever These positions have been called in the analytic debate on the philosophy of science respectively realism and anti realism However an individual must not limit their stance to either acceptingrejecting a theory You may treat what it says as true only as a methodological principle for making scientific observations and ignore everything about its view of reality once you leave the lab Thus you need not assume a mind if you are trying to do behavioural psychology your subjects are just larger pigeons after all you can act methodologically as if all a person is is a pretty complex machine always readly apt for reprogramming like any other and still outside the context of scientific observation say while you discuss results with your peers and carry on daily activity act as if everyone has a mind feelings and so on although you might try to manipulate those around you with positive reinforcement Neural modelling realism says that whatever brains are made of they are fundamentally information processing systems or computers Brains capture data from the external world via sense neurons in the retina or the nose and process this data in their internal wiring and it is this aspect of neural behaviour not say their chemical behaviour although in principle that may also fit under a sufficiently loose definition of computation that is relevant for understanding mental phenomena and definitely not then dreaded Freudian psychology and all of its subjectivity leading traps In the terms above then McCulloch believed that his theory backed or not by empirical observation that isn t the point here not only explained neural behaviour in a way that was interesting productive or apt for the creation of technology all very true it indeed provided us with the actual principles that governed the natural phenomenon under study It is those principles and not anything else that make neural behaviour happen he claimed This is I think a complex philosophical position but which is as Hayles claims a type of platonism It is not dissimilar to those who are realists regarding the laws of physics perhaps for whom the laws described by physicists too are so general that God and man must obey That is because for McCulloch and others today what matters is the organisational structure or the functional behaviour if you prefer of neurons And by matter I mean what is necessary and sufficient for the emergence of mental phenomena such as first person consciousness or ualia that is if the theorist grants them existence at all and is not an eliminativist Note that the distinction Teuber pointed out between a model and the real thing and the former s insufficiency in mimicking the full reality of the latter is at home in the traditional debate in the philosophy of mind outlined above A model is not reality and we ought to debate how acceptable it is as a description of the latter However this distinction fades into the background in McCulloch s answer he found a statement so general that whatever nature or man creates is its mere example or in contemporary analytical metaphysical terms it is an instantiation of it What most essentially defines the ontology of a brain under this view then is the very organisation of its composing parts as distinguished from the material substance they are made of Given that the mind is a byproduct of the brain a true given for materialists and the brain is only instantiating general principles it stands to reason I suppose I find this just crazy that whatever medium is made to replicate the same principles or structure etc such as a silicon robot shall also replicate whatever else a brain does such as having a mind Now it is not so much that theory is seen as true but it is seen as preceding reality itselfHayles calls McCulloch s epistemological if not rhetoric strategy a Platonic backhand In this move one works by inferring from the world s noisy multiplicity a simplified abstraction Hayles p 12 observes the noise and complexity of reality and theorizes that some or other set of simpler understandable general principles explains what is seen This basic initial abstraction is of course part of science the problem begins when the move circles around to constitute the abstraction as the originary form from which the world s multiplicity derives p 12 Laws so general are thought to be found that their occurrence or modelling I d rather say is itself seen as an occurrence of the phenomena they were supposed to model in the first placeFor Hayles writing in a general context of 1990s feminist critiue of traditional Western rationality the above process is one of the points in which the body was erased in order to give place to abstractions such as bodiless information p 12 or the idea that individuality brain structure information patterns Philosophically this occurs by foregrounding the importance the physical organisation of matter rather than any special substantive uality of matter itself in bringing about mental phenomena For many reasons I find functionalism untenable as a position in the philosophy of mind Hayles provided me with reasons showing how shaky assumptions made by daring theorists can be turned into religious dogma for technologists a generation later and inform projects such as the Blue Brain project that aims to replicate a human brain and by materialist biased extension a mind using IBM supercomputers One can only hope their bots can read Hayles after reaching singularity Au temps des Vikings of the cyborg; and the dismantling Introduction à l'histoire de notre temps. L'Ancien (1) of the liberal humanist subject in cybernetic discourse along with the emergence Les secrets du IIIe Reich of the posthumanRanging widely across the history Les Paras De La Waffen-ss of technology cultural studies and literary criticism Hayles shows what had to be erased forgotten and elided to conceive Du Pont D'arcole a La Bataille De Rivoli 1796-1797: Les Derniers Jours De La Première Campagne D'italie of information as a disembodied entity Thus she moves from the post World War II Macy Conferences Histoire du monde (1) on cybernetics. I actually finished this book a few months ago but I never got around to updating it here mostly because I dreaded having to write a review for it In short this is so because although I mostly loved Hayles book and her reflections Histoire de la Belgique pour les Nuls, 2e édition on embodiment and how it was erased by cybernetics and later tech influenced philosophical thought Dictionnaire des corsaires et des pirates on the mind as well such as the whole L'armée De Napoléon III: Dans La Guerre De 1870 of functionalism and all the Kurzweils and Wolframs and La guerre d'Espagne out there I really am not much interested to this day at least which is as much as I can always say about my intellectual hunger in literary analysis no matter how philosophical it might be I would mostly prefer to read theory I guessIn any case I read Hayles mostly because La Luftwaffe Face Au Débarquement: Normandie 6 Juin - 31 Août 1944 of the history Carte Bataille de Provence aout 1944 of cybernetics she presents One Histoire des Tchèques et des Slovaques of my interests in the analytic tradition in the philosophy Histoire des pays tchèques of mind is understanding how anyone could fathom such an absurd idea as mind uploading Cinquante nuances de guerre or conscious machines This is partly because A l'ombre de l'épée - Naissance de l'islam et grandeur de l'empire arabe of my path in these studies I guess I used to entertain the idea that machines might Veni, Vidi, ... Ces grandes défaites militaires qui ont fait la France one day display conscious like behaviour Much like Alan Turing when I learned programming I too saw no good reason not to ascribe them consciousness if they walk and talk like a duck It was Winston Churchill: Une vie only when I was introduced philosophy Figures de proue of mind via Varela Rosch and Thompson s critiue Hermann Goering of internalist disembodied computational based cognition in The Embodied Mind Cognitive Science and Human Experience that I started to reject the idea Les Artilleries Francaises: Premiere Partie 1786-1815, L'artillerie a Pied of conscious machines Human consciousness is itself far ineffable and complex than Le débarquement de Normandie: Overlord, l’opération décisive de la Seconde Guerre mondiale our silly computational models can ever grasp Funnily enough Varela did not deny the possibility 1989 of conscious machines as I do he was fond Rome devant la défaite: (753-264 avant J.-C.) of the potential Penser l'événement. 1940-1945 (Folio Histoire 285) eBook: Pierre Laborie, Cécile Vast, Jean-Marie Guillon: Amazon.fr: Amazon Media EUS.à r.l. of Wolfram s automata for enacting consciousnessHayles pinpoints some very specific and interesting moments in the history Les services secrets en Indochine (Poche Histoire) (French Edition) of scientific development in the mind brain sciences in the 20th century in Fabuleux destins order to exemplify many Histoire de Belgrade of the assumptions which have formed the field since then such as a type Berlin, 1933 - La presse internationale face à Hitler (DOCUMENTS (H.C)) of scientific realism regarding biological neural modeling using computational neural networks I turn to this example probably my favourite passage in the book in the rest La Nuit des longs couteaux of the review as I think it represents the tone France militaire, histoire des armées françaises de terre et de mer, de 1792 à 1833. Tome 1 of the book and Hayles main argumentWarren McCulloch a neurophysiologist and cybernetician in the 1940s developed Comment être un étranger, De Venise à Goa, XVIe-XVIIIe one Auriez-vous crié "Heil Hitler": Soumission et résistances au nazisme : l'Allemagne vue d'en bas- Essais - documents (L'Inconnu) of the first theoretical accounts Joukov or model La bataille des Ardennes: Les derniers jours de l’occupation allemande en Belgique (Grandes Batailles t. 20) of a neuron cell as a basic logical unit McCulloch Les Batailles de Napoléon observed that neurons networked Le marché de l'art sous l'Occupation: 1940-1944 (HISTOIRE) eBook: Emmanuelle Polack: Amazon.fr: Amazon Media EUS.à r.l. organisation made them capable De Gaulle et Roosevelt. Le duel au sommet of signifying logical propositions Hayles p 58 For instance if neuron A is connected to neurons B and C and the excitation threshold Vent glacial sur Sarajevo: Récit (Mémoires de Guerre t. 20) of A is eual to that Atlas des peuples d'Europe centrale of C and B combined then this setup can be said to instantiate the logical proposition if A then B and C Biographies animales. Des vies retrouvées or B C A A natural science philosophical parenthesis Guerre des Juifs. Livre V one should point La Deuxième Guerre mondiale out how much work has been done here it is La vie des Français sous l'occupation (Histoire) eBook: Henri Amouroux: Amazon.fr: Amazon Media EUS.à r.l. often Le traité de Versailles et la fin de la Première Guerre mondiale: Chronique d’une paix manquée (Grands Événements t. 13) only after a model has been proposed that interesting science can be done As Steve Heims apud Hayles has said it is not easy to extrapolate from amorphous pink tissue La Première Guerre mondiale (2): 1916-1918 on the laboratory table to the clean abstractions La Kriegsmarine (1935-1945) of the model Logician Walter Pitts came later and developed the network implications Assassiné(e)s : Seize récits d'assassinats qui ont marqué l'histoire of McCulloch s unit neuron for instance demonstrating that a neural network 500 anecdotes historiques pour enfin retenir l'Histoire of sufficient complexity I assume was able to calculate any number that is any proposition that can be calculated by a Turing machine ie it was Turing complete Such approach has proved a success by most measures Today a lot Sainte-mere-eglise & Mederet: Zone D'operations Aeroportees Americaines Du Jour J of neuroscience works exclusively with neural modelling using computational models Neural network modelling has also led to huge developments in computer science and artificial intelligence in the last decade as we all knowFor McCulloch and many Dieppe le raid 19 août 1942 of Les hommes de Londres : histoire secrète de la Terreur our contemporaries the success Dieu le veut. Chronique de la première croisade of his approach was vindicated by history But what are the nature Histoire de l'Atlantique of models How can a model Les paras du matin rouge of the brain prove anything regarding actual human minds What does behaviour Tout sur Mein Kampf (Tempus t. 747) of artificial neurons mere mathematical reductions prove regarding actual nerve cells La Corruption parlementaire sous la Terreur or worse regarding the human constituted by such cells In 1947 a fellow cybernetician psychologist H L Teuber asked this very uestion elegantly Your robot may become capable Venise au Moyen Age (Guides Belles Lettres des civilisations t. 12) of doing innumerable tricks the nervous system is able to do it is still unlikely that the nervous system uses the same methods as the robot in arriving at what might look like identical results Your models remain models unless some platonic demon mediate between the investigators En voyage. Alpes et Pyrénées of Christophe Colomb et le Nouveau Monde: Une erreur qui mène à la découverte de lAmérique organic structure and the diagram making mathematiciansMcCulloch s answer for me is exemplary Dictionnaire critique de la Révolution française of his fellow machine functionalists to this dayI look to mathematics including symbolic logic for a statement Le duc de Saint-Simon, comte de la Ferté-Vidame, mémorialiste et épistolier of a theory in terms so general that the creations La guerre d'Afghanistan: L'opposition de l'URSS et des moudjahidines, de 1979 à 1989 of God and man must exemplify the processes prescribed by that theory Just because the theory is so general as to fit robot and man it lacks the specificity reuired to indicate mechanism in man to be the same as mechanism in robotSecond natural science philosophical parenthesis you may treat a theory such as the neural scientific view Vignes et vins au Liban : 4000 ans de succès of the nerve cell derived from McCulloch differently depending Gutenberg et l'imprimerie à caractères mobiles: Vers une révolution du livre on whether you believe it describes reality Les Mots de l'histoire. Essai de poétique du savoir or less accurately Le français, histoire d'un combat or whether you take it as ACTA LATOMORUM: Chronologie de L'histoire de la Franche-Maçonnerie Française et Étrangere only a useful fiction Franco et la guerre civile: Une figure noire de l’histoire espagnole one that leads to productive science but which purports to bear no resemblance to reality whatsoever These positions have been called in the analytic debate Dictionnaire amoureux de la Suisse on the philosophy Thomas Jefferson et la Déclaration d'indépendance: Entre idéaux et réalités du pouvoir of science respectively realism and anti realism However an individual must not limit their stance to either acceptingrejecting a theory You may treat what it says as true Benjamin Franklin: Le Père fondateur des États-Unis only as a methodological principle for making scientific Espagne observations and ignore everything about its view Thomas Edison, le magicien de Menlo Park: La vie lumineuse d'un inventeur insatiable of reality La guerre de Cent Ans. 1337-1453: Un siècle de lutte entre Français et Anglais once you leave the lab Thus you need not assume a mind if you are trying to do behavioural psychology your subjects are just larger pigeons after all you can act methodologically as if all a person is is a pretty complex machine always readly apt for reprogramming like any La Commune de 1871, quand Paris s'insurge: Une révolution au destin tragique other and still Dictionnaire amoureux de Saint-Pétersbourg outside the context Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Égypte, pendant les campagnes du général Bonaparte of scientific Henry Ford. L'automobile à portée de tous: L’ère de la mécanisation observation say while you discuss results with your peers and carry Une histoire de la Pologne on daily activity act as if everyone has a mind feelings and so La Révolution française et la fin de la monarchie absolue: Aux armes, citoyens ! on although you might try to manipulate those around you with positive reinforcement Neural modelling realism says that whatever brains are made Andorre, 10.000 ANS D'Histoire of they are fundamentally information processing systems Le maccarthysme ou la peur Rouge: La croisade américaine contre le communisme or computers Brains capture data from the external world via sense neurons in the retina L'extermination des Tutsis au Rwanda: Le dernier génocide du XXe siècle or the nose and process this data in their internal wiring and it is this aspect Souvenirs d'un montagnard (Éd.1878) of neural behaviour not say their chemical behaviour although in principle that may also fit under a sufficiently loose definition Andrew Jackson, le Lion d'Amérique: Un Homme Ordinaire À La Tête Des États-Unis of computation that is relevant for understanding mental phenomena and definitely not then dreaded Freudian psychology and all Pedro Álvares Cabral, sur les pas de Vasco de Gama: Le Brésil au hasard des alizés of its subjectivity leading traps In the terms above then McCulloch believed that his theory backed Par les terres de la maure enchantée: L'art islamique au Portugal or not by empirical Petite Histoire de la France de la Belle Époque à nos jours observation that isn t the point here not Histoire de la Lorraine only explained neural behaviour in a way that was interesting productive L'ABCdaire de Toscane or apt for the creation Nelson Mandela et la lutte contre l'apartheid: L’homme de la réconciliation of technology all very true it indeed provided us with the actual principles that governed the natural phenomenon under study It is those principles and not anything else that make neural behaviour happen he claimed This is I think a complex philosophical position but which is as Hayles claims a type Parcours historique : A la découverte du plateau de Palaiseau of platonism It is not dissimilar to those who are realists regarding the laws Marie-Antoinette: Le destin tragique d'une reine dans la tourmente de la Révolution of physics perhaps for whom the laws described by physicists too are so general that God and man must Jeanne d'Arc, la Pucelle d'Orléans: Sur les traces dune héroïne française obey That is because for McCulloch and Séquana, nymphe ou déesse de la Seine ? others today what matters is the De Villaine à Vilmorin : L'histoire des graviers organisational structure Robespierre, l'incorruptible défenseur du peuple: Lartisan de la Révolution française et des valeurs républicaines or the functional behaviour if you prefer Richelieu, l'éminence rouge de Louis Xiii: Un cardinal à la tête de la France of neurons And by matter I mean what is necessary and sufficient for the emergence Saint Louis, un roi chrétien à la base de la justice moderne: La France entre les mains dun saint of mental phenomena such as first person consciousness Dictionnaire amoureux de la Belgique or ualia that is if the theorist grants them existence at all and is not an eliminativist Note that the distinction Teuber pointed Saddam Hussein. Ascension et chute du dictateur irakien: Le Moyen-Orient à feu et à sang out between a model and the real thing and the former s insufficiency in mimicking the full reality Dictionnaire historique et critique: Miscellanea philosophica of the latter is at home in the traditional debate in the philosophy Mai 68, la France paralysée: De la révolte étudiante à la crise nationale of mind Moyen Age et Renaissance au cinéma : L'Angleterre, partie 1 outlined above A model is not reality and we Celtes: Les Grands Articles d'Universalis ought to debate how acceptable it is as a description Autour du Saint Suaire et de la collégiale de Lirey (Aube) of the latter However this distinction fades into the background in McCulloch s answer he found a statement so general that whatever nature Venise: Guide culturel d'une ville d'art de la Renaissance à nos jours (Romans, Essais, Poésie, Documents) or man creates is its mere example Le français, histoire d'un combat or in contemporary analytical metaphysical terms it is an instantiation The D.Day Landing Beaches: The Guide of it What most essentially defines the Douzillac : Du côté de Mauriac ontology Red : A Natural History of the Redhead of a brain under this view then is the very Histoire des cuisiniers en France: xixe-xxe siècle organisation La Bretagne Pour les nuls of its composing parts as distinguished from the material substance they are made Charlemagne, empereur d'Occident: Aux sources de lEurope of Given that the mind is a byproduct La Provence Pour les Nuls of the brain a true given for materialists and the brain is Histoire de l'Albanie et des Albanais only instantiating general principles it stands to reason I suppose I find this just crazy that whatever medium is made to replicate the same principles Géraldine, reine des albanais or structure etc such as a silicon robot shall also replicate whatever else a brain does such as having a mind Now it is not so much that theory is seen as true but it is seen as preceding reality itselfHayles calls McCulloch s epistemological if not rhetoric strategy a Platonic backhand In this move Le long chemin sous le tunnel de Platon one works by inferring from the world s noisy multiplicity a simplified abstraction Hayles p 12 Histoire DAlbanie : Bref Apercu / Kristo Frasheri observes the noise and complexity L'esclave avait-il une âme ? : La fête servile à la Martinique dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle of reality and theorizes that some Les démocraties populaires. albanie - bulgarie - hongrie - pologne - roumanie - tchécoslovaquie - yougoslavie - république démocratique allemande. or La vie politique à Saint-Pierre de la Martinique de 1848 à 1902 other set L'Albanie Entre Byzance et Venise, Xe-XVe Siecles of simpler understandable general principles explains what is seen This basic initial abstraction is L'Albanie et la question d'Orient: (Solution de la question d'Orient). [Par] prince Albert Ghica of course part Voyage en Morée, à Constantinople, an Albanie, et dans plusieurs autres parties de l\'Empire othoman, pendant les années 1798, 1799, 1800 et 1801: Tome 1 of science the problem begins when the move circles around to constitute the abstraction as the Mon commandement en orient 1916-1918 . originary form from which the world s multiplicity derives p 12 Laws so general are thought to be found that their Histoire d'albanie bref aperçu occurrence Voyage en Morée, à Constantinople, en Albanie, et dans plusieurs autres parties de l\'Empire othoman, pendant les années 1798, 1799, 1800 et 1801: Tome 3 or modelling I d rather say is itself seen as an Voyage en Morée, à Constantinople, an Albanie, et dans plusieurs autres parties de l'Empire othoman, pendant les années 1798, 1799, 1800 et 1801: Tome 2 occurrence Les enfants de l'aigle of the phenomena they were supposed to model in the first placeFor Hayles writing in a general context Des hommes ordinaires : Le 101e bataillon de réserve de la police allemande et la Solution finale en Pologne of 1990s feminist critiue Adolf Hitler ou la vengeance de la planche à billets : Et Le document secret de l'OSS sur la personnalité d'Adolf Hitler of traditional Western rationality the above process is Le Mur de Berlin one Une petite ville nazie of the points in which the body was erased in Les derniers secrets du IIIe Reich order to give place to abstractions such as bodiless information p 12 Hitler. Les année obscures. Mémoires or the idea that individuality brain structure information patterns Philosophically this La loi du sang: Penser et agir en nazi occurs by foregrounding the importance the physical La révolution culturelle nazie organisation Hermann Goering of matter rather than any special substantive uality Le meurtre de Weimar of matter itself in bringing about mental phenomena For many reasons I find functionalism untenable as a position in the philosophy Frédéric II of mind Hayles provided me with reasons showing how shaky assumptions made by daring theorists can be turned into religious dogma for technologists a generation later and inform projects such as the Blue Brain project that aims to replicate a human brain and by materialist biased extension a mind using IBM supercomputers One can Examen de conscience only hope their bots can read Hayles after reaching singularity

Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine HaylesHow We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics

Free read How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Read ´ How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics ☆ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF In this age of DNA computers and artificial intelligence information is becoming disembodied even as the bodies that once carried it vanish into virtuality While some marvel at these changes envisioning consciousness downloaded into a computer or humans beamed Star Trek style others view them with horror seeing monsters brooding in the machines In How We Became Posthuman N Katherine Hayles separates hype from fact investigating the fate of embodiment in an information ageHayles relates three interwoven stories how information lost its body. Theory book on cybernetics I found it particularly inspiring in thinking about myself as a disabled person The ways that we depend on machinery to construct our humanity grows and grows every day The freakishness of disability is minimized by the minute as we all wrap ourselves in metal

Free read How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics

Free read How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Read ´ How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics ☆ eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF To the 1952 novel Limbo by cybernetics aficionado Bernard Wolfe; from the concept of self making to Philip K Dick's literary explorations of hallucination and reality; and from artificial life to postmodern novels exploring the implications of seeing humans as cybernetic systemsAlthough becoming posthuman can be nightmarish Hayles shows how it can also be liberating From the birth of cybernetics to artificial life How We Became Posthuman provides an indispensable account of how we arrived in our virtual age and of where we might go from he. A staggering acheivement HoweverHayles glazes over the disparity between between the richest and poorest societies on the planet There has always been an uneven distribution of wealth so uneven in fact that human society has divided itself into two separate worlds the first and the third The idea of the first world posthuman adds another level of hierarchy to the already insurmountable one in place not only are we now from two different worlds but two different levels of evolution Therefore when we talk about our future as amalgams of human and machine beings with unlimited access to knowledge and transparent technologies we may very well be talking about the birth of an almost superhuman ruling class I m not sure that should be celebrated


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  1. says: How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book]

    How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book] i read this book as a senior in college in preparation for my thesis which was basically about issues of selfhood and agency in a deterministic universe it was at the time one of the most difficult books i'd ever read and correspondin

  2. says: Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book] N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download

    N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles Free read How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics Theory book on cybernetics I found it particularly inspiring in thinking about myself as a disabled person The ways that we depend on

  3. says: N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book]

    How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book] Free read How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics Took me forever to get through this book but it's worth the effort Hayles' basic argument is that modern conceptio

  4. says: How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book]

    Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book] I was deciding between giving it 35 and 4 stars forcing me to rate it as 4 Goodreads what about being able to rate books on a scale from 1 to 10? Just a suggestion The content was mostly not what caused problems it was the style that has led me to moderately dislike the book Even though the stylenarrative was mostly fine at times even incredibly witty it was the other 70% of the time that made me want to put the book d

  5. says: How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book] N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles

    Free read How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles I actually finished this book a few months ago but I never got around to updating it here mostly because I dreaded having to write a review for it In short this is so because although I mostly loved Hayles' book and her reflections

  6. says: How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book] Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles

    Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Free read How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics The strengths of this book come from its three guiding uestions or stories on virtual reality 1 how information lost its body or how it became a separate entity from the material in which it's embedded 2 how the c

  7. says: How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book] Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles

    Free read How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Very well researched and smart text on the ongoing shift from our Western Liberal Humanist persona of humanity to a posthuman cyborg connection between human and intelligent machineI can't believe I just said that As a self chastised luddite I preferred the sections of literary analysis And although I suppose there's nothing I can do to cou

  8. says: How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book]

    How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book] A staggering acheivement HoweverHayles glazes over the disparity between between the richest and poorest societies on the planet Ther

  9. says: How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book]

    Free read How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Fascinating Combines thoughts of cognition consciousness and a lot of informatics the latter of which I knew very little and didn't understood half of it damn you dobble masters I'm still digesting but I'm certain to come back to some of the problems raised in the book

  10. says: N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book]

    Read & Download ò eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ N. Katherine Hayles How We Became Posthuman Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics Literature and Informatics [Pdf/E–book] N. Katherine Hayles ✓ 8 Free download Hayles' book is a philosophical and cultural elaboration of the concept of the posthuman This is not an empirical claim that we have built cyborgs and AIs and other such things which supersede humanity The point of the book is that what we have taken humanity to be through the last few centuries of Western culture is in fact a local sort of cultural product The posthuman is not a succession of mankind oriented into the future bu

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