[E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane


  • Paperback
  • 368
  • The Vital uestion
  • Nick Lane
  • English
  • 10 August 2019
  • 9780393352979

10 thoughts on “[E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane

  1. says: READ The Vital uestion FREE DOWNLOAD Å SJMEDIA.CO ì Nick Lane Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY

    [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane This is a bravura hit you between the eyes popular science book which were it not for a couple of failings would

  2. says: [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY

    [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane I learned a lot from this book and unlearned some old things about biology and biochemistry Here's some notes I took about the book to save on my computer0s Nick Lane The Vital uestion1 Endosymbiosis was a one off between an archaeon body and a bacterium that became mitochondrium Golgi bodies may or may not have invaded later; other “subbo

  3. says: [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane FREE DOWNLOAD Å SJMEDIA.CO ì Nick Lane

    [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY Until now Nick Lane has been my favorite author Increasingly or at least in my estimation he is joining the ranks of the old science

  4. says: [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY

    [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY How have physics and biochemistry been so perfectly matched in such tiny organisms?Please note that I have put the original German text to the end of this review Just if you might be interestedBillions of years nothing Then long stagnation An

  5. says: [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY

    [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane Lane asks why life arose only once on earth and why complex life also arose only once The similarities between the cells of all living things are so great that scientists believe all have a common ancestor Similarly eukaryotes living things that have cells with a nucleus mitochondria and other common attributes a

  6. says: [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane

    READ The Vital uestion [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane Have you ever wondered what life is? Not in the philosophical complexity of how hard it is to lead one but what actually defines life in a scientific sense Ever tried to comprehend the complexity of living wondered on what makes life what concept or part it is that makes you say an organism is alive or dead? In the general sense if you stop breathing you are considered dead Okay you breathe you walk you talk But what is it that

  7. says: FREE DOWNLOAD Å SJMEDIA.CO ì Nick Lane Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY READ The Vital uestion

    FREE DOWNLOAD Å SJMEDIA.CO ì Nick Lane [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane Wow this book was so interesting it's main goal is to put forward the theory that the ability to harness energy by single cell organisms was the leap that was necessary for said organism to evolve into complex o

  8. says: READ The Vital uestion Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY FREE DOWNLOAD Å SJMEDIA.CO ì Nick Lane

    [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane A gorgeous book so clear and well written Worth reading for the description of the ATP synthase alone I wish science writing this good had been around when I was at high school If you're considering reading it bas

  9. says: READ The Vital uestion Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY FREE DOWNLOAD Å SJMEDIA.CO ì Nick Lane

    [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane A compelling theory of the origin of life and its progression to complexity built from first principles and intimately linked with energyI found a glowing mention of this book at the end of Bill Gates' Best Books of 2015 blogpost and immediately bought it after reading the intriguing premise If you liked The Sel

  10. says: [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY

    [E–pub] The Vital uestion author Nick Lane This is the book I've been waiting for So many discussions theological and biological jump immediately to the conundrum of abiogenesis It's a particularly difficult problem with the origins of life shrouded in the ancient past and a good deal of complexity to be conjured from natural processes alone Enter Nick Lane a biochemist in the Department of Genetics Evolution and Environment at University College London leader of

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The Vital uestion

SUMMARY ì The Vital uestion FREE DOWNLOAD Å SJMEDIA.CO ì Nick Lane Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY The Earth teems with life in its oceans forests skies and cities Yet there’s a black hole at the heart of biology We do not know why complex life is the way it is or for that matter how life first began In The Vital uestion award winning author and biochemist Nick Lane radically reframes evolutionary history putting forward a solution to conundrums that have puzzled generations of scientistsFor two and a half billion years from the very origins of li. This is a bravura hit you between the eyes popular science book which were it not for a couple of failings would not only be five star but uite possibly the best popular science book of the year so farNick Lane succeeds on two levels One is opening the eyes of a relatively ignorant reader on the subject of biology like me to the sheer magnificent complexity of biological mechanisms I was aware for instance of mitochondria as the power sources of eukaryotic cells but hadn t a clue just how complex the molecular machines that function across their boundary to the wider cell and inside each mitochondrion were It is truly mind boggling and wonderful At one point Lane comments with raised virtual eyebrows on the number of physicists now working in biology but that s not at all surprising when it becomes plain how much of what goes on is down to pure physics whether it s pumping protons passing electrical charges or uantum tunnelling Lane does resort to the odd exclamation mark normally frowned on by writers but for once it seems entirely justifiedThe other impressive aspect of the book might be less familiar even to some biologists when Lane explores the origins of life no longer from an organic soup but now thought to be primarily from water and carbon dioxide how the energy reuirements of life can sometimes tell us than genetics about the way living cells turned out how our complex cells seem to have developed initially from the embedding of bacteria into another prokaryotes this time archaea And that s just the start in a complex ride that involves changing membranes from one kind to another the spontaneous formation of a nucleus the changing nature of DNA and far It even explains why practically all eukaryotes like us have sexual reproduction Perhaps most surprising is that the earliest common ancestor of eukaryotes seems to have already had most of these complex mechanisms and structures for reasons that again Lane makes very plausible It s fascinating and really changes the idea of how various kinds of living cells may have come into beingSo what s the downside The writing is rather repetitious It s amusing that early on Lane refers to this as a short book saying that it is as short as it could possibly be to get the point across But it is in fact a middle sized book that could have been significantly short and to the point with some of the repetition particularly in the first few chapters taken outMore significantly I think the book suffers from Feynman s ague when the great American physicist was involved in biology he bemoaned the vast uantity of labels that had to be learned to get anywhere and I found there were plenty of pages where I didn t really understand what Lane was talking about because I had either never come across or had already forgotten the explanation of yet another tedious term The book really could have benefited from a co author who wasn t a biologist to say you ve lost me ever few pages or in some cases every few lines I got the overall gist but I felt I was missing out on some of the finer points and did skip a few pages where it was all getting too much for meDespite those misgivings though there is so much to discover in this book I would recommend it for either of my two reasons for liking it alone but taken together they make a potent package that will truly bring out the sense of wonder as only good science can Hajnali láz hole at the Jogging Round Majorca heart of biology We do not know why complex life is the way it is or for that matter May Takes the Lead Pony Tails #5 how life first began In The Vital uestion award winning author and biochemist Nick Lane radically reframes evolutionary Смерть постороннего have puzzled generations of scientistsFor two and a The Path of Initiation hit you between the eyes popular science book which were it not for a couple of failings would not only be five star but uite possibly the best popular science book of the year so farNick Lane succeeds on two levels One is opening the eyes of a relatively ignorant reader on the subject of biology like me to the sheer magnificent complexity of biological mechanisms I was aware for instance of mitochondria as the power sources of eukaryotic cells but The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson hadn t a clue just My Sisters Wishes how complex the molecular machines that function across their boundary to the wider cell and inside each mitochondrion were It is truly mind boggling and wonderful At one point Lane comments with raised virtual eyebrows on the number of physicists now working in biology but that s not at all surprising when it becomes plain Flesh Wounds how much of what goes on is down to pure physics whether it s pumping protons passing electrical charges or uantum tunnelling Lane does resort to the odd exclamation mark normally frowned on by writers but for once it seems entirely justifiedThe other impressive aspect of the book might be less familiar even to some biologists when Lane explores the origins of life no longer from an organic soup but now thought to be primarily from water and carbon dioxide At Sixes and Sevens how the energy reuirements of life can sometimes tell us than genetics about the way living cells turned out Mr Piper and His Cubs how our complex cells seem to Once Upon a Crime have sexual reproduction Perhaps most surprising is that the earliest common ancestor of eukaryotes seems to The Shadow Writer have already Skinjob had most of these complex mechanisms and structures for reasons that again Lane makes very plausible It s fascinating and really changes the idea of Proud how various kinds of living cells may Top Dog have come into beingSo what s the downside The writing is rather repetitious It s amusing that early on Lane refers to this as a short book saying that it is as short as it could possibly be to get the point across But it is in fact a middle sized book that could Hamlet Retelling Hogarth Shakespeare #8 he bemoaned the vast uantity of labels that While My Pretty One Sleeps had either never come across or Freedom Hospital had already forgotten the explanation of yet another tedious term The book really could Sand Omnibus have benefited from a co author who wasn t a biologist to say you ve lost me ever few pages or in some cases every few lines I got the overall gist but I felt I was missing out on some of the finer points and did skip a few pages where it was all getting too much for meDespite those misgivings though there is so much to discover in this book I would recommend it for either of my two reasons for liking it alone but taken together they make a potent package that will truly bring out the sense of wonder as only good science can

FREE DOWNLOAD Å SJMEDIA.CO ì Nick Lane

SUMMARY ì The Vital uestion FREE DOWNLOAD Å SJMEDIA.CO ì Nick Lane Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY Fe single celled organisms such as bacteria evolved without changing their basic form Then on just one occasion in four billion years they made the jump to complexity All complex life from mushrooms to man shares puzzling features such as sex which are unknown in bacteria How and why did this radical transformation happenThe answer Lane argues lies in energy all life on Earth lives off a voltage with the strength of a lightning bolt Building on the pil. Lane asks why life arose only once on earth and why complex life also arose only once The similarities between the cells of all living things are so great that scientists believe all have a common ancestor Similarly eukaryotes living things that have cells with a nucleus mitochondria and other common attributes also have a single common ancestor Eukaryotes are complex life that includes everything from you to mushrooms to amoebas The first eukaryote is believed to have been formed from an endosymbiotic relationship between a bacteria and an archaea The bacteria became what we know as mitochondria Lane believes the answer to why bacteria and eukaryotes only arose once goes beyond nature and nurture genetics and the environment He believes structural limitations were so difficult to overcome that each event only happened onceAll life has common cellular structures and uses common processes to generate energy Cellular respiration operates through redox reactions We oxidize food to free electrons Some bacteria use hydrogen sulfide gas or just hydrogen molecules to supply electrons Photosynthesis uses the sun to free electrons In all cases the electrons are directed down a respiratory channel attracted to oxygen or other receiving molecule and constrained by enzymes along the way During this journey the electrons are used to pull protons across a membrane creating a strong electrical charge differential That charge powers the enzyme ATP synthase that creates ATP ATP then carries the energy to where it is needed in the cell Lane supplies the details outlining the remarkable complexity of the protein machinery that pumps protons and produces ATP This respiration complex is an all eukaryotes bacteria and archaea in every living cell That means it must have been in the last common ancestor of all life we know todayThe scale of cellular respiration is mind boggling A human body averages 40 trillion cells which hold one uadrillion mitochondria The mitochondria contain the energy producing protein machinery In a single human adding all the mitochondria together the folded inner membrane that forms the proton gradient has the total surface area of four football fields Across this surface area the membranes pump 10 21 protons eual to the number of stars in the universe every second You ve got a lot going on Lane believes this ability to create free energy is the key to the origin of life The respiration process along with a steady supply of carbon catalysts to speed up reactions some type of cell wall a way to get rid of waste and RNA or DNA or a functional euivalent gets life started After explaining why some commonly proposed scenarios lack the necessary ingredients for life s origins Lane settles on deep sea alkaline hydrothermal vents not to be confused with black smoker vents The water in hydrothermal vents is warm not prohibitively hot like black smoker vents Hydrothermal vents are stable and can last 100000 years while back smoker vents crumble after decades Hydrothermal vents at the time life formed delivered a steady flow of carbon and hydrogen These vents have a labyrinth of natural channels that concentrate reactants over inorganic catalysts Today hydrothermal vents cannot spawn new life First because existing life is consuming some of the necessary ingredients Second because oxygen in the water precludes the formation of iron sulfide and hydroxide catalysts Before the great oxygenation event that would not have been a problem Third they deliver insufficient carbon today Four billion years ago oceans contained vastly carbon Lane believes the conditions would have been right for a reaction between hydrogen molecules and carbon dioxide to produce methane Today methanogens do just that to supply their energy needs However Lane acknowledges that his theory is not without credible critics and he is testing the scenario in his lab where he can recreate an environment similar to the one he believes existed four billion years agoLane delves deeply into how life might have formed in alkaline hydrothermal vents He starts by looking at the bacteria and archaea living today in the vents They fix carbon and produce energy from hydrogen and carbon dioxide Lane believes this was also true of their last universal common ancestor LUCA According to Lane life starts in the pores of the vent where inorganic proton gradients containing catalytic iron sulfur minerals produce organic molecules and polymers Eventually lipid membranes replace the inorganic gradient in protocells that form from the interaction of the organic molecules The lipid membrane enables carbon and energy metabolism These reactions are forced by the need to reach euilibrium between the alkaline hydrogen rich vent water and the acidic metal rich ocean Proteins and nascent genes develop through natural selection to form essential protein structures such as ATP synthase ribosomes and RNA or similar genetic code This all takes place in the vent pores Lane goes well beyond this sparse description with many pages of explanations and detailed chemistry He doesn t use difficult formulas but the many possible reactions he describes to support his thesis become overwhelming at least to this reader Over the last four billion years bacteria and archaea have changed little despite the dramatic changes in the earth s environment To produce complex life took the creation of the eukaryote around 2 billion years ago Lane accepts the endosymbiosis hypothesis that the eukaryote arose from an archaea engulfing a bacterium which over time became a mitochondria A reason bacteria may have not become complex is because of structural restrictions on their energy output As size increases cell volume is cubed and cell surface area is suared In bacteria the proton gradient membrane runs close to the cell surface limiting their ability to support increased volume Eukaryotes use multiple even thousands of mitochondria per cell each with folded membranes Eukaryotes centralize most of their DNA in the nucleus with minimal DNA reuired for energy production staying in the mitochondria This minimal genome makes forming new mitochondria very efficient Having the relevant DNA close to the action rather than in the cell nucleus also makes them efficient energy producers and responsive to changing conditions The large number of mitochondria and their superior structure support the much larger size and complexity of the eukaryotic cell As bacteria increase in size they place full copies of their DNA along the surface membrane This makes cell division take longer a real disadvantage in bacteria which are always competing with other bacteria Thus bacteria are naturally selected for small sizeHow did the first eukaryotes go on to develop the nucleus their flexible cellular skeleton a plethora of internal membranes and structures and most significantly sex and death There are no halfway survivors between simple bacteria and complex eukaryotes Lane posits that it was all Darwinian natural selection following the one off endosymbiotic event The nucleus formed to control the conflict between the archaea s DNA and that of the bacteria it engulfed Bacteria commonly transfer their DNA material to each other so the archaea would have taken it in and incorporated it into its DNA Only the DNA absolutely necessary was left in the mitochondria maximizing efficiency The process was evolutionary Sex similarly was an early development in eukaryotes While bacteria engage in lateral gene transfer meiotic cell division and the fusion of two haploid gametes one from each parent into a zygote was entirely new Sex mixes individual genes to form a wide array of different gene combinations or alleles in a population Thus it allows natural selection to operate at a much finer level as opposed to favoring or disfavoring an entire chromosome or genome that is passed down intact or with mutations Mitochondria genes come from only one parent in almost all multicellular organisms the female in humans Active animals in particular have high energy needs and their cells have hundreds or thousands of mitochondria and mutations Two different mitochondrial genomes can make alignment with the nuclear genome difficult degrading their function Mitochondrial disease can develop when the mitochondrial genes don t work well with those in the nucleus These genomic mismatches limit interbreeding between closely related different species and even long separated populations of the same species Since mitochondria in active animals build up mutations rapidly female germ cells are produced early in life and seuestered with the mitochondria turned off This is not true in animals with undifferentiated tissues which form germ cells throughout their body such as sponges They can regenerate a whole new individual from any segment Lane discusses in great detail how the need to preserve mitochondria health led to our sexual differences He concludes the inheritance of mitochondria can account for most of the real physical differences between the two sexes The higher mutation rate of mitochondria genes led to an immortal germ cell line and a mortal body Germ cells are always young and can keep on dividing forever The rest of the body becomes disposable Once germ cells are seuestered complex animal tissues can differentiate to enable their specialized functions but these tissues lose the ability to reproduce Death and aging join sex as a conseuence of mitochondria and the endosymbiotic beginning two billion years ago of eukaryotes Mitochondria are only one of a number of important parts of a eukaryotic cell Lane however concludes But that is not the view from evolution The view from evolution sees mitochondria as eual partners in the origin of complex life All eukaryotic traits all cell physiology evolved in ensuing the tug of war between these two partners The structure of the respiration machinery in mitochondria is finely tuned yet it is built by two different genomes Some of the many proteins each built from hundreds of amino acids that comprise these extremely complex machines are products of the genes in the mitochondria and others are products of the genes in the nucleus Yet they have to fit and work together precisely If they don t electron flow is impeded reducing the efficiency of energy production If electron flow is impeded enough free radicals form If too many free radicals are produced the proton gradient membrane loses its potential When that happens cell apoptosis is triggered This scenario is true for all eukaryotes The organism is in essence selecting out cells with mismatched genomes If an organism is pervaded with poorly functioning mitochondria disease results often affecting areas with the highest metabolic rate such as the brain and muscles Unfortunately mutations build up over time in the mitochondrial genes which increases incompatibility with genes in the nucleus Thus mitochondrial function typically declines with age and that decline accelerates in our senior years If the cells don t self destruct they may become senescent stressing the tissues they are in Unfortunately Lane doesn t believe taking lots of antioxidants will help since they are unlikely to get into the cell and if they did they would interfere with normal energy production Lane concludes if life is nothing but an electron looking for a place to rest death is nothing but that electron come to rest This is an excellent but very demanding book The depth of Lane s explanations seemed a bit uneven Some concepts that I considered easy he explained at length Others that I found difficult he seemed to skim over Perhaps this reflects my own limitations given the density and detail of his presentation Still I learned a great deal particularly from his supporting arguments Just his description of the complexity of cell physiology and cellular respiration left me amazed His explanation of the dynamics of two different genomes building proteins that interact intricately in the respiration complex was eye opening with significant implications for evolution aging and human health I benefited greatly from having read another of Lane s books Power Sex and Suicide before this one It is not a light read but I felt it was accessible than this one I recommend checking it out if this one interests you

READ The Vital uestion

SUMMARY ì The Vital uestion FREE DOWNLOAD Å SJMEDIA.CO ì Nick Lane Nick Lane ì 1 SUMMARY Lars of evolutionary theory Lane’s hypothesis draws on cutting edge research into the link between energy and cell biology in order to deliver a compelling account of evolution from the very origins of life to the emergence of multicellular organisms while offering deep insights into our own lives and deathsBoth rigorous and enchanting The Vital uestion provides a solution to life’s vital uestion why are we as we are and indeed why are we here at a. Wow this book was so interesting it s main goal is to put forward the theory that the ability to harness energy by single cell organisms was the leap that was necessary for said organism to evolve into complex organisms and therefore us it explains the processes by which this could be possible attained 4 billion years ago it argues that achieving this feat was nothing short of a miracle that it s very likely to not happen again It also predicts that life in other planets would be similar to earth life at least in the molecular level which it goes to explain we share with almost all organisms here on earth since complex life evolved from one single cell organism that achieved the ability to harness energy ribosomes the ability to keep them in double membrane and the motor to generate that energy mitochondria and therefore was able to escape the fate of single cell bacteria I only give 4 stars to this book because this is not for the beginner this is a very complex and technical albeit very informative book World Without End hypothesis draws on cutting edge research into the link between energy and cell biology in order to deliver a compelling account of evolution from the very origins of life to the emergence of multicellular organisms while offering deep insights into our own lives and deathsBoth rigorous and enchanting The Vital uestion provides a solution to life’s vital uestion why are we as we are and indeed why are we Bone Crossed here at a. Wow this book was so interesting it s main goal is to put forward the theory that the ability to Annie's War harness energy by single cell organisms was the leap that was necessary for said organism to evolve into complex organisms and therefore us it explains the processes by which this could be possible attained 4 billion years ago it argues that achieving this feat was nothing short of a miracle that it s very likely to not Wizard for Hire The Dresden Files #1 3 here on earth since complex life evolved from one single cell organism that achieved the ability to Shot on Gold harness energy ribosomes the ability to keep them in double membrane and the motor to generate that energy mitochondria and therefore was able to escape the fate of single cell bacteria I only give 4 stars to this book because this is not for the beginner this is a very complex and technical albeit very informative book